Multi colour printing without using wipe or prime towers

Most of the problems with multicolour printing revolve around the fact that when switching from one filament to another there is still some of the old filament in the system that needs to be purged before the new filament can be extruded cleanly. The usual approach is to use some sort of wipe or prime tower which is wasteful both in terms of print time and filament usage, so this is an alternative approach to the problem.

I’ve marked this as a feature post. If you are interested in this, check my blog for the latest updates.

As I have promised on a couple of forums, this post will explain in detail the method I am developing to enable 3D printing of multi colour objects without resorting to the use of wipe or prime towers.

For those of you who haven’t been following my endeavours on any forums, here is a link to the video I posted on YouTube which shows the technique in action.

Now before we get too far into the details, I need to explain few things about myself. I was born in 1953 and left school/started work in 1969 at age 16. I learnt my maths using log tables and a slide rule. I’m a mechanical engineer by training but currently (career number 5) I have a small business make designing and building garden decks. What I know about computers, 3D printers, electronics, writing code etc is all self taught through a lot of internet searches and reading a few books and online tutorials so I’m no expert.

I started setting up this blog/web site on 4th January 2017 so I’m still finding may way around. Apart from a brief introductory post, this is the first blog post I have ever made. Therefore, the layout of this blog site may well change (and please excuse any typos)

That’s the excuses out of the way, now down to business…..

The rest of this post assumes that the reader has the tools and techniques available to generate or otherwise obtain a .gcode file for a multicoloured object. I plan to do a separate write up on the method I use, which involves separate .stl files (which I generate using OpenScad) and slic3r but that will have to wait.

There are a number of issues which have to be addressed when printing multicoloured objects and most of them revolve around what happens when switching from one filament to another. My first forays into multicolour printing were with a tricolour Mendel variant which used 3 separate hot ends. I found that there were 4 major drawbacks to this approach. Firstly it was very difficult to get all 3 nozzles at exactly the same height (within less than 0.1mm) and for this setting to be maintained in such a way that inactive nozzles didn’t drag across the printed part. Secondly, it was very difficult to set and maintain  X and Y offsets get the output from all 3 nozzles perfectly aligned. Thirdly, it was necessary to set unused nozzles to a lower standby temperature in order to prevent filament from oozing out and dragging on the print but this was never completely successful. Also, the waiting time for one nozzle to heat up and another to cool down significantly increased the print duration. Lastly, there was the problem of filament oozing from one nozzle as it cooled down and before it reached it’s standby temperature, or another nozzle as it heated up before it reached it’s active temperature.

All of the above problems can by overcome by using a single nozzle – i.e. a mixing hot end. For the purpose of this post, I will define a mixing hot end as one which has multiple filament inputs but a single output (nozzle). I am currently using a Diamond hot end but I am aware that there are other designs.

However, this approach generates a new problem which is that when switching between filaments, there is still some of the old filament left in the nozzle and/or mixing chamber which has to be purged before the next filament comes through. If the colour change coincides with a layer change, this is rarely an issue. Unless the object being printed is really small, what happens is that the purge occurs during the inner perimeter(s) so by the time the outer perimeters are being laid down, the purge has already been completed. Effectively the change over period is hidden inside the object and isn’t visible.

The real problem is when the colour change occurs within the same layer, as in the union flag example that is in the YouTube video, because there is nowhere to hide and any defects will be visible. The usual approach is to move the print head away from the main object, and print some sort of sacrificial tower or use some sort of wiping mechanism to purge out the old filament, then move back to the object and resume printing. This is wasteful both in terms of filament and time, and can lead to a less than satisfactory print finish if filament retraction and recovery are not fully optimised.

The technique I’m developing and which I am about to share here, simply moves the filament change point to a position earlier in the gcode file. The new position equates to the amount of filament that needs to be extruded in order to purge out the old. The method isn’t perfect because in theory, there is still a “transition” period where what is being extruded is a mixture of the old colour and the new. In practice, by observation I’d estimate this transition to be about 10% of the total “purge amount” and I have found that with the Diamond hot end the optimum purge amount is about 2.0 to 2.5mm of filament so there is around 0.2 to 0.25mm of “transition” filament which is hardly noticeable. Other designs of hot end may have larger mixing chambers, in which it may still be necessary to use some sort of wipe or prime tower. However, my technique could still be applied to take account of much of the purging so any further priming could be achieved by using a very much smaller tower or priming mechanism. One of my planned improvements is to build a small priming tower or similar mechanism into the post processing script, although as I have said earlier, the transition between one colour and the next with the Diamond hot end is really small and hardly noticeable.

As mentioned earlier, the only coding I know how to do is what I have been able to teach myself from internet searches, on-line tutorials and the odd book (some have been very odd). I have used Python just because I found it less of a pain to learn than some other languages that I’ve tried. I am aware that this might not be the best tool and I am deeply aware of my own shortcomings so I think the best approach is for me to post my work flow and explanation of what the code attempts to do. Others with more skill than I have can then use it as basis to write something more efficient (and probably less dangerous). I’ll make the python script available for those want to try it but please don’t blame me if it crashes your PC or worse.

So here goes.

The approach I’m taking is to leave the original file untouched and generate a new file with the colour change commands moved forward in the file but otherwise it’s an exact copy. This enables me to run the script several times on the same file but with a different “purge” setting in order to test and fine tune. The change from one colour to another in the gcode file is accomplished by selecting a new tool. It could be done by having a single tool and changing the mixing ratio but that’s not how slc3r works. So for the rest of this post colour changes will be referred to as tool changes. Note that the code could be adapted to look for M563 commands (mixing ratio changes) instead or as well as “Tn” (tool change) commands.

I haven’t yet figured out how to cut and paste the python text while retaining the font colours so I’ll change them manually – hopefully I won’t miss any. Comments are in red and start with a hash (#) String values are in green. My other comments are in blue to denote the fact that are not part of the script.

These first lines should be changed to suit the user. Hopefully the comments make them self explanatory.

sourceFile = “D:\RepRap\G Code Files Diamond hot end\Python test file.gcode” # The full path and file name of the file to be worked on
destinationFile=“D:\RepRap\G Code Files Diamond hot end\Python output.gcode” # the full path and file name of the destination (output) file
temporaryFile =“D:\RepRap\G Code Files Diamond hot end\Python temp.gcode” # A temporary file used to hold smallish sections of the original and which gets read into memory.
purgeAmount =2.5 # This is the amount of filament to be purged when a tool change is needed

The next thing I struggled with was how to detect the start of a print proper. Slic3r inserts all sorts of comments both before and after the actual print and I use quite a complex start gcode in my slic3r setting. In the end I decided to use flags in my start and end gcodes. So the last line of my start gcode is a comment “;begin” and the first line of my end gcode is the comment “;end”. The main reason for doing this is that the script simply looks for the text “T” to detect a tool change and as “T” can be found in comments and both pre and post print sections, I need to restrict the search.  

beginText=“begin” #string to look for to detect start of gcodes proper. This should be the last line of slicer start gcode
endText=“end” #string to look for to detect end of gcodes proper. This should be the first line of slicer start gcode
searchToolText=“T” # String to look for to detect a tool command (which is why we need to restrict the search to between “begin” and “end”
# Tool number could be anything after the “T” so we can’t can’t search for “Tnn” explicitly

Here are all the other variables that I have used. I know that I probably shouldn’t have declared them as global variables but at least they are all in this section so easy to find what they do. I also know that I’ve probably used a lot of unnecessary flags and that they could be boolean rather than integers etc etc.

beginFlag=0 # flag to detect if the word “begin” is present
endFlag=0 # flag to detect if the word “end” is present
#There is nothing to check that begin is indeed before end – maybe do this check too.
toolFlag=0 # flag to detect that tool changes are present
toolChanges=0 # number of tool changes in the file
currentTool=“T0” #default this to “T0”
lineText=“” # text read in from file
startLineNo=0 # the line number in the file immediately after the word “begin”
toolChangeLineNo=0 # the line number in the file where a tool change occurs

newToolPos=0 # the position where the tool command will be inserted
lastLine = 0 # the position of the last line in the temp file
lineToRead=0 # pointer to which line to read in the temp file
estart=0 # position in the line after the letter “E” which denotes the position of the start of digits for extrusion
estring=“” # the string of 7 digits following the letter E
EAmount=0.0 # estring converted to a number
totEAmount=0.0 # the sum of all EAmounts
EAmountNeeded=0 # the purge amount less the totEAmount
notEnoughFlag=0 # flag to set if the the totEAmount is less than needed for a full purge between tool changes

xStartPrev=0 # the position in the previous line where X is
xPrevString=“” # read the 7 characters after “X”
xPrevNum=0.00 # convert to number – First X value

xStartHere=0 # the position in this line where X is
xHereString=“” # read the 7 characters after “X”
xHereNum=0.0 # convert to number – Second X value

xMove=0 #xHereNum-xPrevNum

yStartPrev=0 # the position in the previous line where Y is
yPrevString=“” # read the 7 characters after “Y”
yPrevNum=0.0 # convert to number – First Y value

yStartHere=0 # the position in this line where Y is
yHereString=“” # read the 7 characters after “Y”
yHereNum=0.0 # convert to number – Second Y value

yMove=0 # yHereNum-yPrevNum

E1 = 0 # EAmount-EAmountNeeded
E2 = 0 # EAmountNeeded

X2 =0 # xHereNum
X1 =0 # PrevNum +(xMove/eAmount*E2)
Y2 =0 # yHereNum
Y1 =0 # yPrevNum +(yMove/eAmount*E2)

E1string=“” # used to build insertString1 – 1st E amount
E2string=“” # used to build insertString2 – 2nd E amount
X1string=“” # as above but X values
Y1string=“” # as above but Y values

insertCheck=0 # used in loop to check lines are valid for inserting text
firstInsert=0 # modified from newToolPos if that position contains something other than a normal XYE move
secondInsert=0# as above

insertString1=“” # 1st (new) move string prior to tool change i.e. “G1 Xnnn.nnn Ynnn.nnn En.nnnnn”
insertString2=“” # then the tool change
insertString3=“” # then the second move string

changesDone=0 #number of tool changes done

So now we start the script proper. This section should all be self explanatory. I don’t know how to indent individual lines within a paragraph using this WordPress thingy so I’m having to do it by starting a new paragraph wherever the text needs to be indented.  Therefore there are what look like a lot of blank lines in what follows but Python relies on indentation for the code to work so it’s important that I show it.

# Start by reading through the file to check that “;begin” and “;end” are present
startfile=open(sourceFile,‘r’) # Open file as read only
numLines=sum(1 for line in (startfile)) set to start of file (just in case)
print (“Checking File…”)
for x in range (0,numLines):

if endText in lineText:

break # exit loop on first instance of “end”

for x in range (0,numLines):

if beginText in lineText:

break # exit loop on first instance of “begin”

print (“Number of lines =”,numLines) # Just for info
if beginFlag>0:

print (“\”;begin\” text is present at line “,beginFlag) # Just for info – print a message to say that the search string was present.


print (“There is no \”begin\” statement in the file”) # If not print a different message to say that the string wasn’t found…….
print (“Add \”begin\” to the end of the start gcode in Slicer”) # ….and tell the user what to do about it.
print (“And/Or edit the file and start again”)
exit() pr# if there is no “begin” text string in the source file then end the script after printing the message and closing the file.

if endFlag>0:

print (“\”;end\” text is present at line “,endFlag) # comments as above


print (“There is no \”end\” statement in the file”)
print (“Add \”end\” to the end of the start gcode in Slicer”)
print (“And/Or edit the file and start again”)
exit()# if there is no “end” text string in the source file then end the script after printing the message and closing the file.

startfile.close() # I always like to close a file when an operation on it has finished – just in case.

This next bit is just for information really although the number of tool changes is used further on in the code and if there aren’t any tool changes found, it will print a message and exit. 

#so now read through and count the number of tool changes between begin and end

print (“Checking for tool changes…”)
for x in range (beginFlag,endFlag):

if searchToolText in lineText:


toolChanges=toolFlag-1 # the first occurrence will be the first tool, so take 1 off to get the number of tool changes.
if toolChanges>0:

print (“There are “,toolChanges-1,“tool changes in the file”)


print (“There are no tool changes in this file”)
print (“So no changes will be made.”)


Now I read through the file and copy everything up to the first tool change into the output file

# Now read through the file and copy everything up to the first tool change
startfile=open(sourceFile,‘r’) # open source file again for reading # make sure we start at the beginning
endfile = open(destinationFile,‘w’)# open the destination file for writing
print (“Reading file and writing lines up to first tool change”)
#start by copying everything up to the begin statement
for x in range (0,numLines):

lineText=(startfile.readline())#read line from input file
# uncomment the following line with caution – it really slows things down.
#print (lineText)
endfile.write(lineText) # copy line to output file

if beginText in lineText: #is there a tool string present in this line?

startLineNo=x # if so, set the variable StartLineNo to x which will be the text file line number

break #end the loop when the first tool line number has been reached

# end of for loop


# So now check for first instance of a tool (check gcode file for a “T”)
# also, append all the lines up to this point to the end file
# Start by opening the end file again in append mode

endfile = open (destinationFile, ‘a’) # open again in append mode

for x in range (startLineNo,numLines): # miss out the first lines from 0 to StartLine No

lineText=(startfile.readline())#read line from input file
# uncomment the following line with caution – it really slows things down.
#print (lineText)
endfile.write(lineText) # copy line to output file but this time we are amending it to the end of the file
if searchToolText in lineText: #is the string present in this line?
currentTool=lineText # if so, set the variable CurrentToolText to whatever this line holds (string value)
break #exit loopif


# *********** Now it gets tricky************

What I do next is copy chunks of the source file between tool changes into a temporary file. The reason for doing so is that I wanted to read this file into a list so that I can work on it. Maybe I could read the entire file into memory but potentially it could be a huge file and gobble up all the PCs resources. David Crocker (DC42 of Duet fame) has said that if he were doing this in firmware, he would have two streams – the original and the output with the a kind of buffer that would hold just the number of commands that make up the purge amount, rather than this approach which holds all the commands between one tool change and the next before they are written to the output file. Thinking about it, that would be a far better approach but the following is how it is now. So, to continue…

(Oh by the way, there are quite a few commented out print statements in what follows which were only used for debugging)

# Read lines from latest tool to next tool and stick them in a temporary file

for changesDone in range (1,toolChanges):# repeat the rest of this until we reach the end of the file

print (“Doing tool change “,changesDone)
totEAmount=0 # reset to zero
newToolPos=0 # reset to zero

tempfile = open(temporaryFile, ‘w’) # This will create a file if it doesn’t exist and/or overwrite.
print (“Writing to temporary file……”)
for x in range (toolChangeLineNo,numLines): # miss out the first lines from 0 to StartLine No

#print (“Tool change line number = “,toolChangeLineNo)
lineText=(startfile.readline())#read line from input file

# uncomment the following line with caution – it really slows things down.
#print (LineText)
tempfile.write(lineText) # copy line to temporary output file
if searchToolText in lineText: #is the string present in this line?

currentTool=lineText # if so, set the variable CurrentTool (Text) to whatever this line holds (string value)
toolChangeLineNo=x # so update the pointer to the current line number…
break #… and exit loop

if x==numLines: # if we reach the end of the file (we should never get here)
print (“No more tool changes”) # print message, close files and quit


#end of x loop – still in changesDone loop

tempfile.close()# Close the file for writing to

#now read the whole tempfile into a list so we can work on it
templines =f.readlines()
lastLine =(len(templines)-1) # Len is the number of lines in the file but the last line will be 1 less because the first line is indexed as 0.
#print (templines[lastline]) # just for debugging
print(“Calculating new tool position”)
#Start at the end of the file and work backwards
# read the 7 characters after the “E” in a line
notEnoughFlag=0 # Reset flag (start at zero)
for j in range(1,lastLine): # set range to the number of lines in the file so that it can’t go back beyond that

lineToRead=lastLine-j # read the line
#print (templines[lineToRead]) # for debugging only – comment out later
if “E” in templines[lineToRead]: # check that the line does actually have an E value

estart=templines[lineToRead].find(“E”) # find the position in the line where E is
estring=templines[lineToRead][estart+1:estart+8] # read the 7 string characters after the E
#print(estring) # just for debugging – comment out later
EAmount=float(estring)# convert the string to a number
#print (EAmount) # just for debugging – comment out later
totEAmount=totEAmount+EAmount # add this amount to the previous amount to get a total
#print (totEAmount) # just for dbugging – comment out later
if totEAmount > purgeAmount:

newToolPos=lineToRead #Set the new tool position to lastline -j (the point in the line where the sum of all the extruder commands excedes the purge amount).
#print(“new tool position “,j)
break #exit the loop

if j==lastLine: # if we go all the way back

newToolPos=lineToRead # then there aren’t enough moves to purge fully so set new tool pos to the earliest position
print (“WARNING Not enough extrusion between tool changes to fully purge”)


# so now we have the position for the tool where adding the Eamount from the line after excedes the amount needed to purge
# but it’s counting backwards from the end
print(“Splitting Gcode line at insert point”)
# so I want to use only the amount needed, therefore I have to split the line
#the amount needed will be the ToteAmount minus the purgeAmount
EAmountNeeded = totEAmount-purgeAmount
#get the x an y totals for the line that needs to be split

# ************Trap for the line not being a normal XYE move **************
# ************If it isn’t go back and keep going back until we find one **************

if notEnoughFlag==1: # skip the next bit if flag set


while insertCheck ==0:

if “G1 X” in templines[secondInsert]:



# Now get the x value from this line

xStartHere=templines[secondInsert].find(“X”) # the position in this line where X is
xHereString=templines[secondInsert][xStartHere+1:xStartHere+8] # read the 7 characters after “X”
xHereNum=float(xHereString) # convert to number – Second X value

# and do the same for the y value
yStartHere=templines[secondInsert].find(“Y”) # the position in this line where Y is
yHereString=templines[secondInsert][yStartHere+1:yStartHere+8] # read the 7 characters after “Y”
yHereNum=float(yHereString) # convert to number – Second Y value

#Now do it all again for the previous line

firstInsert=newToolPos-1 #take 1 away to get the previous line
if notEnoughFlag==1: # skip the next bit if flag set


while insertCheck ==0:

if “G1 X” in templines[firstInsert]:



xStartPrev=templines[firstInsert].find(“X”) # the position in the previous line where X is
xPrevString=templines[firstInsert][xStartPrev+1:xStartPrev+8] # read the 7 characters after “X”
xPrevNum=float(xPrevString) # convert to number – First X value

yStartPrev=templines[firstInsert].find(“Y”) # the position in the previous line where Y is
yPrevString=templines[firstInsert][yStartPrev+1:yStartPrev+8] # read the 7 characters after “Y”
yPrevNum=float(yPrevString) # convert to number – First Y value

#Now take one from the other

# Now split the values

E1 = EAmount-EAmountNeeded
E2 = EAmountNeeded

X2 = xHereNum
X1 = xPrevNum +(xMove/EAmount*E2)
Y2 = yHereNum
Y1 = yPrevNum +(yMove/EAmount*E2)

# Now convert the values back to strings

E1string=“{:.5f}”.format(E1)# 5 decimal places
#print (E1string)
#print (E2string)
X1string=“{:.3f}”.format(X1)#3 decimal places
#print (X1string)
#print (X2string)
#print (Y1string)
#print (Y2string)

#build strings to insert
insertString1=“G1 X”+X1string+” Y”+Y1string+” E”+E1string+”\n” # 1st (new) move prior to tool change
insertString2=currentTool # then the tool change
insertString3=“G1 X”+X2string+” Y”+Y2string+” E”+E2string+”\n” # then the second (new) move

#print (insertString1)
#print (insertString2)
#print (insertString3)

#determine the point where the lines need to be inserted
print (“Appending lines to output file”)
#now open the end file and append this lot to it.
endfile = open(destinationFile,’a’)
for x in range (0,insertPoint):


for x in range (insertPoint+1,lastLine):


print (“Tool change “,changesDone,“done”)
changesDone=changesDone+1 # so go back and do it all again for the next tool change

# End of changes Done loop

print(changesDone-1,“Tool changes moved”)
if notEnoughFlag==1: # skip the next bit if flag set
print(“WARNING there was insufficient filament extruded to fully purge between at least one of the tool changes”)

# So now all that remains is to append the rest of the source file to the output file

print (“Copying remaining lines to output file…”)
endfile = open(destinationFile,’a’)
for x in range (toolChangeLineNo,numLines):

lineText=(startfile.readline())#read line from input file

print (“Done..”)

And that my friends is it!!

I don’t suppose anyone will want to copy and paste all the above code so I’ve uploaded the file to my Google drive.

Edit. 24th Jan 2017. I have removed the link to the Python script because there were a number of bugs – see later posts.

How I assemble Diamond Hot Ends

A few people have asked me how I stop leaks around heat sinks and I’ve also read quite a few posts on various forums by people who have had problems, either with leaks or blockages. I’ve never had any problem with leaks and only on rare occasions, partial blockages. The latter were in my early days of using the Diamond and were mostly caused by my turning off the printer and hence the cooling fan, before the hot end had cooled sufficiently, resulting in “heat creep”.

I’m not sure if I’ve just been lucky but I thought it might be useful if I shared my method of assembling the Diamond hot end, as it is a little different from the official “” method. This is a hot end that I had to re-build as it had been fitted with the original woven thermal blankets, which had basically fallen apart and needed replacing.

Having disassembled the hot end, the first thing I needed to do was clean out the bore of the heat sinks. If you are starting with new heat sinks, it shouldn’t be necessary but it might be worth just running a 4mm diameter drill bit down the holes to be sure that the ptfe Bowden tube will slide in nicely.

reamingTheHole say to assemble the heat sinks into the brass cone first, then fit the Bowden tubes. The trouble with that is that you can never be quite sure that the tube has gone all the way into the heat sink and/or it requires some very careful measuring. So I like to fit the tubes first like this, leaving them just protruding.


Then, using a craft knife, I trim the end flush like this. Keeping the side of the knife against the end of the heat sink ensures a clean straight cut. Make sure you use a very sharp knife as you don’t want ragged bits of ptfe inside the tube. tubeEndTrimmed

Then I pull back the tab on the Tube holder and fit Bowden clips (plenty of designs on thingiverse). This part is as per instructions.


If you know how long your Bowden tubes need to be, you can cut them to length now. If not, leave them over long. Once they are cut to the right length, I like to form a funnel inside the extruder end. To do this, I use 2.5mm drill bit and drill down a few mm while working the bit from side to side and up and down. I use Titan extruders which have filament guides built in but even so, I’ve had problems when loading filament with it getting stuck against the very end of the tube, instead of sliding straight in. Forming a “funnel shape” in the end of the tube alleviates this problem.


It’s easier to do this now if you can, because you can now take an off cut of filament and feed it right through the Bowden tube from the heat sink end back towards the extruder end. This will clear out any small bits of ptfe swarf.

The next thing I do is wrap ptfe tape, (also known as thread tape) around the thread. applyingPTFE

Note how I hold the reel of tape so that it is always kept taught. Note also that it is important to wind the tape onto the thread the same way that you would screw on a nut. Then when you screw the heat sink into the threaded hole, it will have a tendency to wind the tape onto the thread and keep it in place. If you wind the tape in the other direction, the tendency is for it to unwind as you screw it into the hole.

Do the same for the other heat sinks.


Now I like to prepare the thermal blankets. Thankfully, have gone away from the awful woven stuff that simply fell apart. This is how they look now.


I’m not sure what they are made of but it’s more fibrous than woven and doesn’t seem like it’ll fray. However, it might so I like to wrap it in Kapton tape like this.


I use 50m wide tape and start with a length of about 100mm or so, laid sticky side up. Then I place the thermal blankets on top (ensuring that all the holes line up) and fold the Kapton tape over. Then press it down around the edges so that it sticks to itself and trim around with a pair of scissors. Lastly, I pierce the tape on both sides by cutting a cross over each of the holes with a very sharp knife.

Then I fit the 3 heat sinks and the cartridge heater to the prepared thermal blanket. I use a standard 20 mm heater which actually stand proud of the hole by 5mm. That’s not ideal I know but it has never caused me any problem.




Double check to make sure there are no bits of tape or other no debris anywhere near the ends of the tubes. I don’t fit the temperature sensor at this stage. If you use thermal paste, now is the time to apply it. Personally I use this stuff but only on the heater.


When I was in the automotive industry many years ago, we used to call it “copper slip” and used it on spark pug threads and the like. Some little while ago, I did some back to back testing with this stuff and there was a marked improvement in heat up time due to the high copper content which improved thermal transfer. The carrier grease does burn off at high temperatures (somewhere around 350 degC IIRC) but the copper gets left behind and improves the thermal transfer. I’m a bit dubious about using the thermal paste that supply as I’m not sure if it is designed to withstand hot end temperatures. Maybe it’s OK – just not sure.

The next thing to do is fit the heat sinks and tighten them up. say not to do them too tight and allude to the fact that they will be fully tightened later. However, that later tightening doesn’t get mentioned (or it didn’t that last time I read those instructions) and in any case, once the hot end is fitted to the fan shroud, it’s almost impossible to tighten the heat sinks further. So I tighten them fully at this stage. I use a pair of pipe grips which prevent me from doing them up so tight that they would likely snap the heat sinks. All I can say is do them up tight but take care.


The next thing to do (which I always forget) is to fit the screws into the mount that will retain the 40mm fan. These need to have small heads to clear the top of the heat sinks, so cap head screws are a no no. There is no way to fit two of the screws once the hot end is clipped into the fan shroud. I’ve found that making the holes in the mount slightly undersized helps to keep the screws in place.


So the last ting to do is to fit it all together. I start by partly fitting the heat sinks to the mount but not fully.  This is when I fit the temperature sensor (a 4 wire pt100 in my case). Note that the instructions seem to indicate that the temperature sensor wires should go inside the fan shroud, along with the heater cartridge wire. I find that part of the shroud gets in the way and presses on the wire, so I prefer to run the temperature sensor wire outside the shroud but still hold it in place with the same cable that holds the heater wires to the inside of the shroud.


Then, clip it all together and fit the cable ties and finally, mount the fan.fitCableTies

Do please excuse the state of the plastic mount. I printed that with the awful eSun PETG that I wrote about in an earlier post.

I like to use nylok nuts on the fan screws. If a nut fell off and went into the fan, it could fly out and do some damage to an eye or something.

Hope some of the above may be of use. As I said in my opening remarks, I’ve never really suffered with any of the problems that some people have so maybe, this assembly method may help.

eSun PETG and E3D Edge

I need to make some parts for my printer upgrade which will need to be strong so I thought it was about time that I tried some of the newer PETG filaments. As ever, these are just my personal experiences and I have no links with either eSun or E3D other than being a paying customer. Neither do I have any “axe to grind” or grudge against any company. What follows are just my own findings, on my machine and should not ne taken as any recommendation or otherwise.

I have for a long time wanted to try E3D’s Edge filament but the price has always put me off so I bought a couple of reels of eSun PETG from eBay. It cost me £51.48 for two 1kG reels, including postage and packing. This is quite a bit more than I normally pay for PLA but considerable less that E3Ds Edge. I was hopeful that the extra cost would be justified by the parts being stronger.

The reels arrived very well packed and each reel was inside a strong vacuum bag.

Before I go any further, I should remind readers that I use a Diamond hot end which has 3 inputs but a single nozzle. It is very important that all 3 inputs are loaded with filament at all times, otherwise the extruder pressure will simply force filament out of any unused inputs. However, buying 3 rolls of filament gets expensive when I only want to print a single colour, so what I do is pull off  a couple of 5 or 10 metre lengths of filament. Then I load the main reel into one input (tool 0) and load the short lengths into each of the other inputs. For single colour printing, I still use the hot end as a mixing hot end but I define the tool (in this case tool 0) to use 98% of extruder 0 and 1% of extruders 1 and 2. This ensures there is always filament loaded into all the inputs, even though only one is mainly used. The 1% mixing ensures that the filament in the other two inputs is always kept moving (albeit very slowly) so that the extruder doesn’t keep grinding away at the same pat every time it retracts, and also the filament doesn’t get cooked by being heated for a long time without moving.

So, I loaded the filament as detailed above, (having first removed the previous PLA) then I selected tool 3 which uses all three inputs in the proportions 33:33:34 and extruded a further 300mm to ensure that it was completely purged through.

The first thing I like to do with any filament is print a simple tower about 20mm square by 100mm or so high. Then I vary the temperature every 10mm or so and observe the finish and how well it prints, looking out for any signs of under extrusion at lower temperatures.

eSun recommend using a temperature of between 230 and 250 degC so I started at 235 and went up from there. The first thing I noticed was that the filament started to ooze out of the nozzle at around 170 degrees C. Anyway, this is the result starting at 235 deg C on the left and increasing to 250 just before the break on the right.


It was pretty awful as the picture shows. So I dropped the temperature down to 210 and carried on lowering the temperature down to 190 which significantly improved the finish. The next picture is the second half of the tower from 210 on the left to 190 on the right.


As well as the very poor finish, inter layer adhesion was appalling. That’s why the tower broke when I gently tried to remove it from the bed. In fact it broke in two places, the first was about 5mm up from the bed and not shown in the pictures.

So, I tried again this time starting at 180 and increasing to 210, then back to 190. This is the result.


I was very surprised to find that it printed at all at 180, but I think I could hear the odd skipped step from the extruder and there were signs of under extrusion. At 200 and above, the finish deteriorated remarkably and the inter layer adhesion was still appallingly bad at all temperatures.

So it seemed that for whatever reason, the optimum temperature to print this stuff, on my machine was around 190deg C. This is nothing like the 230 to 250 that I was expecting and in fact is the same temperature that I print PLA. So I started to wonder if I had a batch that had been wrongly labelled and contacted the seller.

Meanwhile, having settle on a temperature of 190deg C, I decided to try and print something useful. This is the result


Sadly, although the surface finish was reasonable, there was just no strength to the part. It simply snapped very easily, far easier than I have ever experienced with cheap PLA.

At this point, the seller came back to me and asked that I supply a photograph of the labels so that he could contact the factory. Here is one of them.


The seller later came back to say that the factories’ response was that “it is the right product” but also that it must be kept dry. I pointed out that I had removed it from it’s packaging, loaded it into my printer and started to use it within minutes so there had been no time for it to absorb moisture.

This is such a shame as I really hoped it would be a viable alternative to the more expensive “Edge” filament. The reality is that I can’t use it for anything due to the very poor inter layer adhesion and I’ll simply throw it all the bin.

In fairness to the seller, he did offer to refund my money which I accepted. I was however, a bit disappointed in the response he said that he has received from eSun. I was (and still am) willing to return it for analysis.

So, after that little episode, I still needed to find a strong filament so I “bit the bullet” and purchased some “Edge” filament from E3D online.  I opted for the 2.3 kg which worked out a bit cheaper at £70. That doesn’t sound too bad but then there was £4.26 deliver and then VAT at 20% on top of everything at £14.85 making the total £89.11 (for 2.3kg). Which works out at about £38.74 per kg. Not cheap……

When it arrived, I was a little disappointed to find that it wasn’t in the strong vacuum bags that I have become used to. It was OK and there was some silica gel in the packaging but just a tad disappointing. What was lot disappoint was the reel that it was on. Look at it……


That’s it on the left, next to a “standard” 1kg reel. The inner hole is about 50mm diameter, then there are those huge webs taking it to 210mm before any filament gets wound onto it!  The outer diameter is about 300mm. A “standard” 1kg reel would fit inside the wasted space so the whole thing could have been half the size. It’s not the waste of packaging that irks me, it’s how the hell do I fit that monster on my machine? In the end, I had to wind it from the monstrous great spool onto an empty “normal” size spool. Now 1kg of 1.75mm filament is about 300 metres and believe me, winding that from one spool onto another is a real PITA. The moral of the story? Don’t buy the 2.3 kg option – pay the extra and buy 3 normal (0,75kg) size reels instead (that’s assuming they come on sensible size spools).

OK, winge over. So I loaded up as before and again, I started with tower 20mm x 20mm x 100mm varying the temperature every 10mm. I started at 235 deg C, increased it to 250 then went down to 190. Observing the print quality all the time. Here result.


The camera doesn’t show the differences which are very subtle. Basically, I found this stuff printed well at just about any temperature. I did notice skipped steps and signs of under extrusion from 200 and below but anything above that, it was hard to see any visible difference in this test cube piece. What I did notice is that it started to ooze at about 180 as the nozzle was heating up.

The part is really strong too. It’s only 20% infill but I can’t break it with my hands – I’d need a vice and hammer.

As this stuff is expensive (to me anyway), I decided not to bother doing any more test pieces to refine retraction or any other parameters but went straight on to print some parts using the (every day) settings I use for PLA. My rationale being that I might end up with something that would be functional but not necessarily pretty and I can refine the parameters “on the fly”. So here is the first printed part


Two things I noticed. The first was that it was a bit stringy and I’d need more retraction. The second was that the filament has quite an affinity for sticking to the nozzle. What tended to happen was that I’d get a  bit of a build up around the nozzle, especially when doing small detailed moves, which would later fall off and leave a stringy blob. I believe a silicone sock might help but as no one sells one to suit a Diamond hot end, I’ll have to look at making my own.

What was impressive was the hollow fan ducts (the two raised parts in the picture). I printed these without any support just for the hell of it. Here is a close up.


That’s an unsupported span of 31mm from left to right. That kind of bridging capability opens up a whole new world of possibilities for me.

During the first print, I did play around with temperature and retraction settings. I found that I need about 50% more retraction than I’m used to with PLA. I have shortish Bowden tubes (about 250mm) and use firmware retraction because I need to retract all three filaments simultaneously and was using 2mm but with Edge I need about 3mm. Also, a faster retraction speed seemed to help too. An added benefit of using firmware retraction is that one can change the parameters “on the fly”. Also, I found that lowering the temperature seemed to help with the build up around the nozzle and blobs as did lowering the extrusion multiplier to 0.95 from 1.00

Anyway, this was the second print with a bit more retraction and the temperature lowered to 210 deg C. I know this is 10 degrees less that E3D recommend but it seems to work well for me on my machine.


Close inspection shows it’s a bit “hairy” here and there and the top layer surface finish could be improved but the results are very promising. The holes, both horizontal and vertical are nice and circular.  The parts are also very strong, which was the original criteria that I hoped PETG would meet. I’ll keep playing around with settings to get this “dialled in” properly but so far, the results are very encouraging.

So, I’ll happily use E3D edge but only for parts that need to be robust due to the high cost. Sadly, I’ll not be using eSun PETG for anything due to the very poor inter layer adhesion that I encountered.





When all else fails, check your nozzle

All of sudden, I started having all sorts of problems with first layer adhesion. Since I’ve been using 3DLac on my glass build plate, this has never before been an issue. Try as I might, I just couldn’t get beyond the first layer which was a horrible stringy mess and refused to stick to the build plate. I won’t go into details of what I checked as it would be a long and boring read, but finally I decided to take a look at the nozzle itself. This is Diamond hot end, so it’s one great lump of brass. This is what I found.


That used to be a nice, round 0.4mm diameter hole. Here is another picture


That is a 0.8mm diameter drill bit inserted into what was once a 0.4mm diameter hole.

The nozzle has done many hundred of hours of printing but never with any abrasive filaments. Mostly just PLA. Of course, not every print has gone perfectly and there have been occasions when the nozzle has scraped across the previous layer.

I don’t really know what caused it, just general wear and tear I guess but the issues I had with printing were not a gradual process. One day all was well and the next day all was far from well.

I had a spare which I have fitted and now everything is back to normal. So I guess, if things go awry and you’ve checked all the obvious, take a look at your nozzle……….

Stepper motor and electronics cooling

I recently encountered a problem with my printed XY stepper mounts so thought I’d share my solution and also some other things I do to cool certain parts of my printer.

We all know that stepper motors run hot but they are mostly rated to run at around 80 degrees C so normally, cooling isn’t necessary. However, if you use a printed mount such as I do, then you may experience this.


I had read that this could happen but didn’t really give it any thought. What has happened is that repeated periods of 20 plus hours printing, the plastic has been softened by the heat of the motor, then the lateral force of the belt tension acting on the motor shaft has distorted the mount.

Of course, a metal mount would cure the problem but I use a sliding motor mount as a belt tensioner and not having access to metal working machinery, it has to be a printed part. It’s possible that a different type of plastic to PLA might have been more thermally stable but I decided to use a “belt and braces” approach.

The first thing I did was to buy a plumbers’ soldering mat which is made from Gold Silica and cut a couple of gaskets to go between the motor and the mount. I don’t know how effective this will be but it didn’t cost much so why not?


The next thing was to fit a heat sink and fan to the top of the motor. I used these heat sinks and used some thermal paste between the motor and the heat sink.

These were the quietest 40mm 24v fans I could find

To fit it all together, I had to remove two of the stepper motor screws and replace them with lengths of studding (it needs very long screws which I couldn’t find). Nyloc nuts and washers keep it all together. I would have preferred it if the heat sinks had been drilled in apposite corners, rather than two holes on one side.

Lastly, the Duet electronics mean that the printer is very quiet in normal use. So much so that fan noise start to become intrusive to me. I had already changed the power supply to a fan less design (my heated bed is mains powered so I don’t need a high current power supply). The hot end fan is set to run in thermostatic mode so that it only runs when the hot end is above 45 degrees C. Likewise the fans I use to cool the electronics. So when the printer is idle, no fans run at all and it is virtually silent apart from a faint buzz from the stepper motors once they have been energised. I have the Duex5 expansion board as well which gives me extra fan and heater connections so, I decided to do the same with these stepper cooling fans.

To monitor the temperature I stuck a bead thermistor to each stepper, close to the mount, with a small amount of epoxy adhesive. Here is how the installation looks.


Here is how it looks at the Duex5 end. The thermistors are the orange and green wires at the bottom and the fans are the red and blue coming out of each loom.


Just out of shot is the thermistor that I stuck to the topmost stepper driver chip but you can see the two white wires leading into a spare heater channel. I did the same on the main board  with one of the XY driver chips. These thermistors control fans which blow air on to the back of the boards.

Next I had to configure the new fans and heaters. A note of explanation is required here. With Duet electronics, temperature channels are called “heaters” regardless of whether they are actually used to switch physical heaters or, in this case cooling fans.

So here are the relevant lines from my config.g file for the “heaters” (actually thermistors).

M305 P2 T100000 B3950 R4700; Set thermistor + ADC parameters for heater 2 – this is used to measure stepper chip temperature on Duet
M305 P3 T100000 B3950 R4700; Set thermistor + ADC parameters for heater 3 – this is used to measure stepper chip temperature on Duex5
M305 P4 T100000 B3950 R4700; Set thermistor + ADC parameters for heater 4 – this is used to measure left XY stepper temperature
M305 P5 T100000 B3950 R4700; Set thermistor + ADC parameters for heater 5 – this is used to measure right XY stepper temperature

This is the fan section of my config.g

; Fans
M106 P0 S0.0 I0 F10 H-1 ; Set print cooling fan (3) value, PWM signal inversion (off)and frequency (10 hz). Thermostatic control is turned off
M106 P1 S255 I0 F500 H1 T45; Set hot end fan (1) value, PWM signal inversion(off) and frequency. Thermostatic control is turned on
M106 P2 S255 I0 F500 H2 T45; Set fan 2 value (Duet board fan), PWM signal inversion and frequency. Thermostatic control is turned on
M106 P3 S255 I0 F500 H3 T45; Set fan 3 (Duex5 board fan) to work thermostatically on H3 temp
M106 P4 S255 I0 F500 H4 T45; Set fan 4 (Left XY stepper fan) to work thermostatically on H4 temp
M106 P5 S255 I0 F500 H5 T45; Set fan 5 (Right XY stpper fan) to work thermostatically on H5 temp

Finally, I wanted to be able to actually display these temperatures on the web interface. The way I found to do this was to create “dummy” tools without any extruders associated with them. I started with defining tool numbers 99 then worked backwards.

Here is the ending part of my tool definition section.

M563 P99 H2; define this dummy tool just so dwc shows the temperature value for the thermistor that’s stuck to the stepper driver
M563 P98 H3; define this dummy tool as above for duex thermistor
M563 P97 H4; define this dummy tool as above for left xy stepper thermistor
M563 P96 H5; define this dummy tool as above for right xy stepper thermistor

This is how it looks on the Duet Web Interface.

Screenshot-2017-4-18 TallCoreXY

I just have to remember that Heater1 is the hot end thermistor (as normal), Heater 2 is actually the XY driver chip on the Duet main board, Heater 3 is the same for the Duex5 board, Heater 4 is the left XY motor body and Heater 5 is the right XY motor. I have posted a request on the Duet forums for a better way to display these temperature channels.

I understand that future versions of firmware will have the ability to control fans based on a temperature warning signal from the driver chip itself. This would negate the need for the thermistors that I have used but as I understand it, the temperature threshold at which the fan comes on will be quite a lot higher and not user configurable.

Finally, it was time to test my new cooling arrangement and I can report that it works like a charm. I started printing a simple 200mm square object. It takes quite a while (about 45 minutes or so) for the steppers to reach 45 deg C. This may be due to the heat sinks on their own – I have no data to compare with though. When the temperature reaches 45 deg C, the fan switches on, the temperature drops, the fan switches off and there is a bit more of a drop before the temperature come back up. The cycle time for the fans is about 1 minute on, 3 minutes off and after about 4 hours, the temperature was still being controlled at 45 deg C with the same hysteresis. What is interesting is that when doing diagonal infill on a coreXY one motor is stationary and I can observe one fan switching on and off while the other hardly runs until the next layer where the situation is reversed. So I’m glad that I decided to add control to each individual motor. Maybe I need to do the same with the driver chips…………



Setting up a Metrol positioning switch

This is a very quick post on how I installed a Metrol positioning switch for Z homing with my sliding hot end mount using the Duet Wifi electronics.

Metrol are a Japanese company who make high precision switches for industrial applications. Here is a link to their web site They seem to have a direct sales site called which is here It looks like you can buy from ToolSensor via their outlet too.

I couldn’t find a UK source so ended up going to Misumi  UK and buying one of their contact switches. It wasn’t until it was delivered that I discovered that it was in fact a Metrol switch. Misumi only sell to businesses but they don’t seem to care if the business is VAT registered (mine isn’t) and there are no  minimum order quantities. So how and where you source these Metrol switches will depend on what part of the world you live in.

These switches come in numerous configurations. The one I chose has a smooth body but there are threaded versions available too. If you can, buy one without the LED as then it can be connected to the E0 end stop connector in the normal way – i.e. just like any other micro switch. The instructions for connecting end stop switches are here

Unfortunately, the non-LED version was not available from Misumi so I had to buy the LED version. The Misumi part number of the one I chose was N-MSTK-ASD. The non LED version is the same part number but without the “D” on the end. There is a sleeve on the switch with the word “Metrol” (that’s how I know it is a Metrol switch) and then “CS06A -L” which I assume is the Metrol part number and I would hazard a guess that the hyphenated “L” denotes LED version.

The data sheet for this switch shows a stroke of 2.0mm, the switching point as being 0.3mm from tip and the repeatability to be 0.005 mm. Metrol do make switches with claimed repeatability of 0.001mm but IMO that would be overkill even for our Z axes.One down side is that the switch is normally open rather than normally closed so if a wire falls off, it won’t fail “safe”. As I mentioned in my other post, I installed a backup micro switch to trigger 1mm higher than the Metrol switch and initiate an emergency stop should the primary switch fail.

If you’ve managed to find a non-LED version of this switch, then you can stop reading now as the rest of this post is on how to install the LED version.

Because this switch has a series LED and the Duet electronics also has an LED with a pull up resistor, it has to be treated as an analogue switch rather than a digital switch (this was what confused me at first). So following David Crocker’s advice (DC42) I connected the switch between the In and Gnd pins of the Z probe connector, with a pull up resistor (about 220 ohm to 1 K) between in and +3.3V. The resistor value isn’t critical as long as it is within that range – lower makes the series LED shine brighter when the switch is triggered.

Here is a link to the Duet Wiring diagram. NOTE. Unless you have a very early prototype board, the diagram to use is the one at the top entitled “………v1.0, v1.01,v1,02” The lower diagram is for PROTOTYPE – don’t let the “V2” fool you into thinking that its is later than the production V1.0 versions. This is important because the Z probe pins are different.

Having got the switch connected, we now need to “tell” the Duet board what type of switch it is. In this case, it is probe type 1. The relevant gcode command is M558 and the settings can be found here So my M558 line looks like this. M558 P1 X0 Y0 Z1 F180 T6000 I1. I don’t use and form of bed probing other than for homing so the “T” parameter is irrelevant in my case.

Note that unlike the mini height sensor, the “analogue” voltage from the Metrol switch does not change gradually as the sensor gets close to the bed. Instead it simply switches from one value(zero) to another. So you cannot use the facility whereby the probing speed will slow down as the sensor gets closer to the bed so you may need to drop the Z homing speed (180 mm/min works well for me).

The last thing to do is check that the switch is working and set the trigger value and trigger height.Again, it should be noted that I don’t use any form of bed compensation so I’ve only ever used G31 for homing. If you do detailed probing, you may be using G30 or G32 but the principle will be the same.

I currently have a problem with my printer and am unable to connect using the web interface so I’ll have to do the rest of this post from memory. Apologies in advance if what you see is not what I say you will see.

This is where I discovered another command that I wasn’t previously aware of. One can use M119 to report the end stop status. With the switch open as normal, send M119 via the web control and observe the switch status in the console. Then manually close the switch and send M119 again to check that it is closed. The console on the web interface may indicate that the probe is close to the bed but not actually at the bed. This is because the trigger value may not be correct, especially if you have previously been using the IR probe. So, with the switch open, observe the probe value (top right hand corner of DWC) and should read zero. Then with the switch closed, observe the probe value again. With a 500 Ohm resistor, I had a reading of 474 and my G31 was still set for the mini IR probe with a trigger value set to 500 which is why the web interface console showed that the probe was close to the bed. The actual value will depend on the resistor you used, so set the trigger value to be about half way between zero (when the switch is open)  and the reported value when the switch is closed. In my case I used 250 so my G31 ended up as “G31 P250 X0 Y0 Z-0.8”. The “Z” value is the trigger height and is set in the usual way by using a thin piece of paper between the probe and the bed or whichever method works best for you.






Tool free swappable, bed probing hot end mount.

Like many things in life, this printer modification evolved into something much more than my original intention. By way of introduction, this picture shows my original hot end mount and X and Y axes.


As readers of my blog will know, I use a Diamond mixing hot end. This is a rather ungainly beast with 3 heat sinks sticking out at 28 degrees taking up quite a lot of space and weighing in at around 250gms (excluding any extruders). Because of the weight, the engineer in me decided that the best way to mount it would be to fix it between two parallel rails, rather than having it hanging over the side of a single rail, which is why I ended with a such a huge X carriage. It was heavy too. The X carriage including the hot end weighed 690gms and the Y carriage with the X rails fitted weighed in at 1,210gms so my combined Y axis weight was a whopping 1,900gms. Having said all that, I regular used to print at 90mm/sec with non print moves set to 350mm/sec with accelerations set to 1200mm/sec^2 and the thing was absolutely rock solid. It was impossible by hand, to “flex” the hot end in any way.

My issue was that I have another Diamond hot end, fully assembled but with a 0.9mm nozzle that I intend to use with Taulman T glass filament, and changing the hot end was a complete pain. So I set out to make a new mount that would enable me to quickly swap hot ends, preferably without the need to use any tools. I also decided to abandon the dual X rail setup and replace the two 2020 extrusions with a single 2040 extrusion. Part of me still thinks this was bad idea from a rigidity point of view, but there are other benefits such as weight savings and increased range of movement which I hope will outweigh the negatives.The next two pictures are Open Scad images of the new X carriage.



The red part is the new Diamond hot end mount. Effectively, the mount has a sort of Dovetail slot around the two sides and the bottom, into which the mount slides.This is a close up of the actual Diamond hot end mount.


At this point, I realised that I could solve another minor issue that I had. That is, I use an IR mini height sensor but I also use 3DLac on my my glass build plate, and the 3DLac can alter the reflectivity of the glass, meaning that I often had to make adjustments to my Z axis homing. The other problem I have with the IR sensor is that, because of the shape of the Diamond hot end, it is very difficult to mount it anywhere close to the nozzle.So I thought, rather than locking the hot end into place, I could hold it against it’s seat using springs which would allow it to slide up and down. I could then mount the height sensor above the hot end, rather than below it. This would mean that the hot end is itself the height probe. In the event, I discovered a Metrol positioning switch with a claimed repeatability of 0.005mm  and decided to use that above the mount but retain the mini IR sensor below the mount if the sliding arrangement doesn’t work out. I’ll cover the Metrol switch in a separate post.

It took me a few attempts to print the parts such that they would slide easily but at the same time have no “wobble”. It wasn’t too hard though because the bottom of the mount is also a “Dovetail” shape and when the springs act down on the mount, the effect is to pull the two faces together.

Of course, I have reservations about how well these plastic printed parts will last over time but I am optimistic because now that I have installed and set it all up, I have only 0.8mm of movement before the switch triggers and can probably reduce this further. The worst case scenario is that if the sliding\probing\homing aspect proves to be unreliable, I will change the design slightly to clamp the hot end in place and go back to using the mini IR probe for homing.

At least I will be able to quickly change hot ends without using any tools. Here is a little video I made showing how that all works.

As with all these things, the update was much more involved than I first though. The entire upper section of the printer has to be disassembled, including the motor mounts, idlers, and of course the X and Y rails………


………but I got it all put back together.

back together

So in practice, what happens for Z homing is that the bed rises, the nozzle touches the glass then the mount gets lifted off it’s seat and slides up until the switch triggers (currently 0.8mm) and my configuration file is set so that Z=0 is 0.8mm below the point where the switch triggers. The switch has 2mm of plunger travel but triggers at 0.3mm so there is a further 1.7mm of plunger travel available. I made use of this by building in a fail safe which is just a micro switch acting on the bed and set to trigger an emergency stop at 1mm after the point where the homing switch should trigger.


If using the nozzle itself as a means of Z homing proves to be unreliable, I have still achieved my original objective which was to have a means of quickly swapping hot ends. As a bonus, I have gained an extra 50 mm of movement in X  (now 375 mm instead of 325 mm) and 30mm in Y (now 350mm instead of 320 mm). Also, the new X carriage weighs 520gms instead of 690gms and the new Y axis (without X) weighs 820gms instead of 1,210gms giving me a total weight saving in Y of 560gms ( 1,340gms instead of 1,900gms).

The downside is that I can now “flex” the nozzle in the Y direction if I push and pull hard enough, whereas the old design was rock solid. However, I’ve just finished my first print and there is no sign of and “banding” that I would expect to see if the nozzle was moving around during a print. Also, the Z homing is working like a charm and thus far, is consistent and repeatable.

One last thought. With this mounting arrangement, I could fairly easily change to a completely different design of hot end, by making a suitable adaptor. By way of illustration. here is an adaptor that I’ve just made so that I can fit a dial gauge to level the bed.


I’ll give an update in a few weeks or months when I am able to asses how reliable and/or repeatable this turns out to be.


Late edit. I’ve just finished printing this object which is 133mm tall.


There is no sign of banding and the dimensional accuracy is pretty good. The smaller diameter should be 45mm and it measures at between 45.3 and 45.2 throughout the height. The inner square should be 21mm and measures at between 20.96 and 21.02 and the overall height measure at 132.8mm now that it’s cooled. So although it is possible to flex the hot end in the Y direction by applying force by hand, I’m reasonably confident that there is no movement during normal printing (at least in the centre of the bed).


Dual function LED ornament stands

As a change from printing lots of test pieces with no practical value, I thought it was about time I made something useful. I’ve given step by step instructions and a list of materials in case anyone else want to make any of these.

My wife has a growing collection of miniature glass and plastic Christmas trees (one or two of which I have made using Taulman T glass) which come out every year. They look more effective when lit from below so we have one or two of those led stands that one can buy. The trouble is, some of these ornaments are plain glass and look best with coloured light while others are already coloured so look best with white light. The other issue with some of the stands one can buy is that they take those really small button cells which make them expensive to run compared to using say, rechargeable AA or AAA batteries. So I decided to make some that would take rechargeable batteries and that could be switched between colour changing or white.

Initially, I had planned to use rechargeable PP3 9V batteries. These would have been easier to fit inside the base and would have meant that I could run 2 or 3 LEDs in series with a single current limiting resistor. However, when I looked into the capacity of these batteries, the amp hour rating is very low which would have meant that they would only have lasted about 8 to 10 hrs between charges. So, I decided to use AA size cells instead, which have a much higher capacity. The voltage drop across the super bright white LEDs is 3 volts and for the colour changing it was 2.4 volts (variable depending on which colour is being produced) so I needed at least 3 batteries to give me 4.5 volts and the LEDS would have to wired in series, each with it’s own current limiting resistor.

The colour changing LEDs are not as bright as the white LEDs so I decided to use 4 colour changing ones and 2 white ones.

In addition to the LEDS, I also needed a switch. I had hoped to use a miniature ON-OFF-ON slide switch but was unable to find one. The best I could find was On-On which would switch between colour changing and white but had no centre “OFF” position so I ended up using two switches. One for ON-OFF and the other for Colour – White. If you can find an ON-OFF-ON version, it would simplify the wiring quite a bit.

Then I needed clips to hold the batteries and provide electrical contact, some wire and some strip board.

The complete list of materials for one of theses stands is as follows.

2 off super bright white 5mm LEDS (one could also use 3mm)

4 off slow colour changing 5mm LEDs (or 3mm)

1 off piece of strip board 25mm x 25mm

3 off Keystone AA (-ve) contact part No 209. These are the dimensions


3 off Keystone AA (+ve) contact part number 228 as below


2 off switches PIC part number SS-22f25-G dimension as below


Printed parts – Base, Top and Insert. These can be found on Thingiverse here Printed parts files

The first thing was to make up the strip board LED modules. Each LED has it’s own current limiting resistor, the value of which will depend on the specification of the LEDs. In my case I used 220 Ohm and 180 Ohm. The +ve input to all 4 of the colour changing resistors are connected together as are the 2 +ve inputs for the white resistors. The -ve side of all the LEDS are connected together.  Here is a picture of one of the made up boards.


The 4 colour changing LEDS are on the outside and the 2 white ones are on the inside. The red wire is the +ve for the white LEDs and the Orange is the +ve for the colour changing LEDS. The black wire is the common -ve.

A quick note about using these slow colour changing LEDS. When they are first turned on, they are all the same colour and start to slowly fade to the next colour. However, they don’t all change at the same rate. So after a period if time they get “out of sync”. This results in many more combinations of colour which are more subtle than just RGB and in my opinion, give some quite pleasing effects.

The next thing was to design and print the base which holds everything together. Here is one of those bases.


And here is one with everything wired up.


The pictures should be self explanatory. The base is designed to take the switches which are a snug fit but slide in from the top. The clips for the batteries are a press fit from the top. NOTE, solder the wires to the clips before fitting the clips otherwise the heat will melt the plastic. The lower right hand battery clip is the +ve terminal which goes to the centre terminal of the ON-OFF switch which is at the top. One side of this switch goes to the centre terminal of the changeover switch which is on the right. The red wire from the LEDs goes to one side of the changeover switch and the orange wire goes to the other side of the switch. The black -ve LED wire goes to the -ve battery clip which is the top right one. The batteries are then connected in series -ve to +ve as shown by the blue wires. As I mentioned before, life would have been a lot easier if I could have found a miniature ON-OFF-ON switch rather than having to use two ON-ON switches.

Here is a finished base with batteries installed. For testing, these are just ordinary A batteries, not rechargeable. The LED board sits in a recess but I used a couple of spots of silicone sealant to hold the LED board in place (but any glue will do).


I forgot to take a picture of the top but here is an image from OpenScad


It is designed to just clip on and has 2 “prongs” which locate it and also hold the switches in place. The rectangular cut out takes a clear insert which I printed separately.


I printed the inserts using Taulman T glass clear. They simply press in and I used some clear silicone sealant to hold them in place. Here is a picture of three of them.


I actually made 10 of these. One was a working prototype so “er in doors” has 9 useful ones.


Here is a picture of one of them in white. The featured image at the top shows it in colour mode. Sorry about the reflections of my window blind which show on the top but you’ll get the idea.


I put all the files including the OpenScad file on Thingiverse so you can play around with the design as you see fit – maybe you’ll be able to find an On-Off-On switch to simplify things. Here is that link again Printer parts files