Tool free swappable, bed probing hot end mount.

Like many things in life, this printer modification evolved into something much more than my original intention. By way of introduction, this picture shows my original hot end mount and X and Y axes.

original

As readers of my blog will know, I use a Diamond mixing hot end. This is a rather ungainly beast with 3 heat sinks sticking out at 28 degrees taking up quite a lot of space and weighing in at around 250gms (excluding any extruders). Because of the weight, the engineer in me decided that the best way to mount it would be to fix it between two parallel rails, rather than having it hanging over the side of a single rail, which is why I ended with a such a huge X carriage. It was heavy too. The X carriage including the hot end weighed 690gms and the Y carriage with the X rails fitted weighed in at 1,210gms so my combined Y axis weight was a whopping 1,900gms. Having said all that, I regular used to print at 90mm/sec with non print moves set to 350mm/sec with accelerations set to 1200mm/sec^2 and the thing was absolutely rock solid. It was impossible by hand, to “flex” the hot end in any way.

My issue was that I have another Diamond hot end, fully assembled but with a 0.9mm nozzle that I intend to use with Taulman T glass filament, and changing the hot end was a complete pain. So I set out to make a new mount that would enable me to quickly swap hot ends, preferably without the need to use any tools. I also decided to abandon the dual X rail setup and replace the two 2020 extrusions with a single 2040 extrusion. Part of me still thinks this was bad idea from a rigidity point of view, but there are other benefits such as weight savings and increased range of movement which I hope will outweigh the negatives.The next two pictures are Open Scad images of the new X carriage.

OpenScadCarriage

OpenScadWithDiamond

The red part is the new Diamond hot end mount. Effectively, the mount has a sort of Dovetail slot around the two sides and the bottom, into which the mount slides.This is a close up of the actual Diamond hot end mount.

DiamondMount

At this point, I realised that I could solve another minor issue that I had. That is, I use an IR mini height sensor but I also use 3DLac on my my glass build plate, and the 3DLac can alter the reflectivity of the glass, meaning that I often had to make adjustments to my Z axis homing. The other problem I have with the IR sensor is that, because of the shape of the Diamond hot end, it is very difficult to mount it anywhere close to the nozzle.So I thought, rather than locking the hot end into place, I could hold it against it’s seat using springs which would allow it to slide up and down. I could then mount the height sensor above the hot end, rather than below it. This would mean that the hot end is itself the height probe. In the event, I discovered a Metrol positioning switch with a claimed repeatability of 0.005mm  and decided to use that above the mount but retain the mini IR sensor below the mount if the sliding arrangement doesn’t work out. I’ll cover the Metrol switch in a separate post.

It took me a few attempts to print the parts such that they would slide easily but at the same time have no “wobble”. It wasn’t too hard though because the bottom of the mount is also a “Dovetail” shape and when the springs act down on the mount, the effect is to pull the two faces together.

Of course, I have reservations about how well these plastic printed parts will last over time but I am optimistic because now that I have installed and set it all up, I have only 0.8mm of movement before the switch triggers and can probably reduce this further. The worst case scenario is that if the sliding\probing\homing aspect proves to be unreliable, I will change the design slightly to clamp the hot end in place and go back to using the mini IR probe for homing.

At least I will be able to quickly change hot ends without using any tools. Here is a little video I made showing how that all works.

As with all these things, the update was much more involved than I first though. The entire upper section of the printer has to be disassembled, including the motor mounts, idlers, and of course the X and Y rails………

stripDown

………but I got it all put back together.

back together

So in practice, what happens for Z homing is that the bed rises, the nozzle touches the glass then the mount gets lifted off it’s seat and slides up until the switch triggers (currently 0.8mm) and my configuration file is set so that Z=0 is 0.8mm below the point where the switch triggers. The switch has 2mm of plunger travel but triggers at 0.3mm so there is a further 1.7mm of plunger travel available. I made use of this by building in a fail safe which is just a micro switch acting on the bed and set to trigger an emergency stop at 1mm after the point where the homing switch should trigger.

limitSwitch

If using the nozzle itself as a means of Z homing proves to be unreliable, I have still achieved my original objective which was to have a means of quickly swapping hot ends. As a bonus, I have gained an extra 50 mm of movement in X  (now 375 mm instead of 325 mm) and 30mm in Y (now 350mm instead of 320 mm). Also, the new X carriage weighs 520gms instead of 690gms and the new Y axis (without X) weighs 820gms instead of 1,210gms giving me a total weight saving in Y of 560gms ( 1,340gms instead of 1,900gms).

The downside is that I can now “flex” the nozzle in the Y direction if I push and pull hard enough, whereas the old design was rock solid. However, I’ve just finished my first print and there is no sign of and “banding” that I would expect to see if the nozzle was moving around during a print. Also, the Z homing is working like a charm and thus far, is consistent and repeatable.

One last thought. With this mounting arrangement, I could fairly easily change to a completely different design of hot end, by making a suitable adaptor. By way of illustration. here is an adaptor that I’ve just made so that I can fit a dial gauge to level the bed.

dialGaugeMount

I’ll give an update in a few weeks or months when I am able to asses how reliable and/or repeatable this turns out to be.

Ian

Late edit. I’ve just finished printing this object which is 133mm tall.

1stPrint

There is no sign of banding and the dimensional accuracy is pretty good. The smaller diameter should be 45mm and it measures at between 45.3 and 45.2 throughout the height. The inner square should be 21mm and measures at between 20.96 and 21.02 and the overall height measure at 132.8mm now that it’s cooled. So although it is possible to flex the hot end in the Y direction by applying force by hand, I’m reasonably confident that there is no movement during normal printing (at least in the centre of the bed).

 

Dual function LED ornament stands

As a change from printing lots of test pieces with no practical value, I thought it was about time I made something useful. I’ve given step by step instructions and a list of materials in case anyone else want to make any of these.

My wife has a growing collection of miniature glass and plastic Christmas trees (one or two of which I have made using Taulman T glass) which come out every year. They look more effective when lit from below so we have one or two of those led stands that one can buy. The trouble is, some of these ornaments are plain glass and look best with coloured light while others are already coloured so look best with white light. The other issue with some of the stands one can buy is that they take those really small button cells which make them expensive to run compared to using say, rechargeable AA or AAA batteries. So I decided to make some that would take rechargeable batteries and that could be switched between colour changing or white.

Initially, I had planned to use rechargeable PP3 9V batteries. These would have been easier to fit inside the base and would have meant that I could run 2 or 3 LEDs in series with a single current limiting resistor. However, when I looked into the capacity of these batteries, the amp hour rating is very low which would have meant that they would only have lasted about 8 to 10 hrs between charges. So, I decided to use AA size cells instead, which have a much higher capacity. The voltage drop across the super bright white LEDs is 3 volts and for the colour changing it was 2.4 volts (variable depending on which colour is being produced) so I needed at least 3 batteries to give me 4.5 volts and the LEDS would have to wired in series, each with it’s own current limiting resistor.

The colour changing LEDs are not as bright as the white LEDs so I decided to use 4 colour changing ones and 2 white ones.

In addition to the LEDS, I also needed a switch. I had hoped to use a miniature ON-OFF-ON slide switch but was unable to find one. The best I could find was On-On which would switch between colour changing and white but had no centre “OFF” position so I ended up using two switches. One for ON-OFF and the other for Colour – White. If you can find an ON-OFF-ON version, it would simplify the wiring quite a bit.

Then I needed clips to hold the batteries and provide electrical contact, some wire and some strip board.

The complete list of materials for one of theses stands is as follows.

2 off super bright white 5mm LEDS (one could also use 3mm)

4 off slow colour changing 5mm LEDs (or 3mm)

1 off piece of strip board 25mm x 25mm

3 off Keystone AA (-ve) contact part No 209. These are the dimensions

209

3 off Keystone AA (+ve) contact part number 228 as below

228

2 off switches PIC part number SS-22f25-G dimension as below

pic-ss-22f25-g

Printed parts – Base, Top and Insert. These can be found on Thingiverse here Printed parts files

The first thing was to make up the strip board LED modules. Each LED has it’s own current limiting resistor, the value of which will depend on the specification of the LEDs. In my case I used 220 Ohm and 180 Ohm. The +ve input to all 4 of the colour changing resistors are connected together as are the 2 +ve inputs for the white resistors. The -ve side of all the LEDS are connected together.  Here is a picture of one of the made up boards.

strpboardmodule

The 4 colour changing LEDS are on the outside and the 2 white ones are on the inside. The red wire is the +ve for the white LEDs and the Orange is the +ve for the colour changing LEDS. The black wire is the common -ve.

A quick note about using these slow colour changing LEDS. When they are first turned on, they are all the same colour and start to slowly fade to the next colour. However, they don’t all change at the same rate. So after a period if time they get “out of sync”. This results in many more combinations of colour which are more subtle than just RGB and in my opinion, give some quite pleasing effects.

The next thing was to design and print the base which holds everything together. Here is one of those bases.

unwiredbase

And here is one with everything wired up.

wiredbase

The pictures should be self explanatory. The base is designed to take the switches which are a snug fit but slide in from the top. The clips for the batteries are a press fit from the top. NOTE, solder the wires to the clips before fitting the clips otherwise the heat will melt the plastic. The lower right hand battery clip is the +ve terminal which goes to the centre terminal of the ON-OFF switch which is at the top. One side of this switch goes to the centre terminal of the changeover switch which is on the right. The red wire from the LEDs goes to one side of the changeover switch and the orange wire goes to the other side of the switch. The black -ve LED wire goes to the -ve battery clip which is the top right one. The batteries are then connected in series -ve to +ve as shown by the blue wires. As I mentioned before, life would have been a lot easier if I could have found a miniature ON-OFF-ON switch rather than having to use two ON-ON switches.

Here is a finished base with batteries installed. For testing, these are just ordinary A batteries, not rechargeable. The LED board sits in a recess but I used a couple of spots of silicone sealant to hold the LED board in place (but any glue will do).

withbattswhite

I forgot to take a picture of the top but here is an image from OpenScad

ledstandtop

It is designed to just clip on and has 2 “prongs” which locate it and also hold the switches in place. The rectangular cut out takes a clear insert which I printed separately.

ledstandinsert

I printed the inserts using Taulman T glass clear. They simply press in and I used some clear silicone sealant to hold them in place. Here is a picture of three of them.

tops

I actually made 10 of these. One was a working prototype so “er in doors” has 9 useful ones.

nineoff

Here is a picture of one of them in white. The featured image at the top shows it in colour mode. Sorry about the reflections of my window blind which show on the top but you’ll get the idea.

finishedwhite

I put all the files including the OpenScad file on Thingiverse so you can play around with the design as you see fit – maybe you’ll be able to find an On-Off-On switch to simplify things. Here is that link again Printer parts files

 

 

 

 

 

 

Making a multicolour gcode file

Here is the method I use to generate gcode files for multi coloured objects

Following on from my post on printing multi coloured objects without using wipe or priming towers, people have asked “how do you get the gcode file to start with?.”

This is the way that I do it. There is nothing ground breaking here and it’s all well documented but this post might help by pulling it all together.

I use OpenScad to generate the .stl files and Slic3r to pull them all together. So, starting with the design, I’ve found it best to create separate modules for each coloured part. Below is the OpenScad code for a simple test piece that I designed to help me find the optimum purge setting to use in the post processing script.

openscadcode

This picture shows what all 3 parts look like.

all3openscad

By commenting out two of the modules like this …..

openscadrenderbutton

… it’ll leave just a single module. In this case the outer part only.

outeropenscad

Then hit render (the left of the two highlighted buttons above) and once it has finished rendering, hit the export stl button (the other highlighted one) and give it a name like “myThingBlackPart.stl” or some such.

Do the same for the other parts e.g.

inner2openscad

Hit Render then export stl with a unique name like “MyThingRedPart.stl” and you’ll have the 3 separate stl files.

The next thing is to load them into Slic3r. So add the first part to the plate like this

slic3robject-on-bed

Then make sure the part is highlighted (click on it to select – it should show as Green on the build plate, if it’s Yellow, it isn’t selected). Then click on “Object” and then “Settings” which will look like this (without the highlights)

slic3rload-part

You’ll notice that a tree has started to form with “Object” being the main part and the part we have loaded being the first branch. Click on this branch as denoted by the highlight, then use the drop down to select the Extruder to assign to this part – in this case number 1.

If you don’t see a drop list of extruders, you need to tell Slic3r that you have multiple extruders which you will find under the “Printer Settings” tab.

Note also that in Slic3R the first extruder is referred to as extruder 1 and that your firmware may use a different numbering system such that the first extruder is 0. I believe the latest version of Duet firmware will allow me to “re-map” the extruder numbering so that it’s the same as Slic3R but I’ve become accustomed to using 1,2 and 3 in Slic3R and relating these to 0,1 and 2 on my machine.

So while we are in this screen, we can now press “Load part” and select the next stl to load. If you forget and close this screen, don’t worry. Just click on “Object” again, and then “settings”.

slic3r-second-part

Now select this second part from the tree as highlighted and set the extruder to use for this part (in this case Extruder 2).

Click load part again and repeat for the third part (if thee is one). I find it’s a good idea to click through the “tree” and double check that each part is assigned to the correct extruder. Note that the “Object” itself can have an extruder assigned to it. I’m not sure why and tend to leave it as “default”.

So, once you are happy that all the parts have the correct extruders assigned to them, hit “OK” and slice\export gcode as normal. Slic3R will insert “tool” (Tn) commands in the gcode file at all the points where a new colour (Extruder) is needed.

Hope that helps.

Ian